Effect of Graphite Nodularity on Mechanical Properties of ...

Effect of Graphite Nodularity on Mechanical Properties of Ductile Iron for Waterworks Fittings and Accessories A. I. Al-Ghonamy1, M. Ramadan 1,2*, N. Fathy3, K. M. Hafez and A. A. El-Wakil1,4 Abstract— Waterworks fittings and accessories are important applications for ductile irons. Although, in the design of these

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CHARACTERIZATION OF DUCTILE IRON THROUGH …

Spheroidal graphite iron is also known as nodular iron or ductile iron. This is obtained by making small ladle additions of a modifier such as magnesium or cerium to liquid metal. Unlike flaky graphite in grey cast iron, Spheroidal graphite does not weaken the matrix considerably.

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Mechanical Properties of Ductile Irons[1] | Cast Iron ...

Ductile iron, also known as nodular iron or spheroidal graphite iron, is second to gray iron in the amount of casting produced. This article discusses the common grades of ductile iron that differ primarily by the matrix structure that contains the spherical graphite.

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On the spheroidal graphite growth and the austenite ...

ON THE SPHEROIDAL GRAPHITE GROWTH AND THE AUSTENITE SOLIDIFICATION IN DUCTILE IRONS by JINGJING QING A DISSERTATION Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the MISSOURI UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in MATERIALS SCIENCE & ENGINEERING 2016 Approved

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(PDF) Graphite Structures in Cast Irons - ELKEM | Uğur ...

NODULARISERS Description of a structure should follow the convention Form : Distribution : Size, e.g. Type IA4 for a grey cast iron Type VI5 for a ductile iron Elkem manufactures and markets a range of high quality nodularising alloys to produce ductile and compacted graphite cast irons.

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What is spheroidal graphite cast iron? - Willman Industries

Ductile iron contains 3.2-3.6% carbon. Now, other cast irons also contain graphite. It is the round tube shape of the carbon that adds the important "spherical" to the name making ductile iron one of the most popular irons to pour in a foundry.

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Processing Techniques and Productions of Ductile Iron: A ...

Processing Techniques and Productions of Ductile Iron: A Review J.O. Olawale, S.A. Ibitoye, K.M. Oluwasegun Abstract—Ductile cast irons are materials having strength, impact toughness and ductility comparable to those of many grades of steel while exceeding by far those of standard gray irons.

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Forged vs. Cast Irons: Which are better for you? - The ...

Nov 15, 2016· Forged vs. Cast Irons: How each are created Forged irons. Simply stated, forged irons are created from start to finish out of a solid piece of metal, and stamped into the appropriate shape and loft. Mizuno, for example, uses a process called "Grain Flow" forging to ensure the grains of the metal flow continuously from heel to toe of the club.

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A Review of Common Metallurgical Defects in Ductile Cast Iron

effect on the shrinkage tendency of ductile irons. Foundries operating at the higher end of the magnesium range, 0.05% or above, will find that the iron is more prone to shrink than ... Exploded graphite is normally found in thicker section castings with ... A Review of Common Metallurgical Defects in Ductile Cast Iron ...

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Chunky graphite formation in ductile cast irons: effect of ...

Chunky graphite formation in ductile cast irons: effect of silicon, carbon and rare earths Use of rare earths, high silicon and carbon contents, and low cooling rates are reported as possible reasons for for-mation of chunky graphite in ductile iron castings. The un-derstanding of this graphite …

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Ductile iron - Wikipedia

Ductile iron, also known as ductile cast iron, nodular cast iron, spheroidal graphite iron, spheroidal graphite cast iron and SG iron, is a type of graphite-rich cast iron discovered in 1943 by Keith Millis. While most varieties of cast iron are weak in tension and brittle, ductile iron has much more impact and fatigue resistance, due to its nodular graphite inclusions.

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Material, AutoCad and Fun: Common Defects in Ductile Cast Iron

Common Defects in Ductile Cast Iron Common Metallurgical Defects in Ductile Cast Iron ... Exploded graphite is normally found in thicker section castings with slow cooling rates or at very high carbon equivalent levels. ... inoculation requirements are heavier than for grey irons and under-inoculation or the use of the wrong inoculant are ...

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Study of microstructure of thick wall ductile iron castings

Study of microstructure of thick wall ductile iron castings S.K. SW AIN* and S. SEN ... STUDY OF MICROSTRUCTURE OF THICK WALL DUCTILE IRON CASTINGS Plane - 1, Plane-2 ... Low nodule count and exploded graphite are found in the structure. Similarly Fig. 3.1, 3.2 and

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Ductile Iron Data - Section 3 - Part 1

The most important and distinguishing microstructural feature of all Ductile Irons is the presence of graphite nodules which act as "crack-arresters" and give Ductile Iron ductility and toughness superior to all other cast irons, and equal to many cast and forged steels.

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(PDF) Degenerated Graphite Growth in Ductile Iron

PDF | As part of a study devoted to the effect of trace elements on graphite degeneracy, near-eutectic ductile iron melts were prepared to which minute amounts of lead and of both lead and cerium ...

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Chunky graphite in ductile iron castings | R. Källbom ...

Non-spherical graphite morphology is detrimental on the mechanical properties of ductile iron castings. This includes the branched and interconnected chunky graphite that occasionally occurs in ...

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GRAPHITE STRUCTURES IN CAST IRONS

GRAPHITE STRUCTURES IN CAST IRONS GRAPHITE FORMS Diagrammatic representations of the standard graphite forms in cast irons ... EXPLODED GRAPHITE Caused by high purity charge materials ... Elkem manufactures and markets a range of high quality nodularising alloys to produce ductile and compacted graphite cast irons.

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Inoculation of Cast Irons ΠAn Overview - Foundry

Inoculation of cast Irons - an overview 357 Combination with 0.5% RE. Effective in thin section ductile iron. Strontium Typical 0.6-1.0%. Combination with 0.1% Ca and 0.5% Al maximum. Good chill reduction Lower shrinkage tendencies. Low S grey irons and ductile irons treated with high RE FSM reduce effectiveness. CHOICE OF INOCULANTS - OUR ADVICE

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Cast Irons - Harry Bhadeshia

Spheroidal graphite cast iron has excellent toughness and is used widely, for example in crankshafts. The latest breakthrough in cast irons is where the matrix of spheroidal graphite cast iron is not pearlite, but bainite. This results in a major improvement in toughness and strength.

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Metallographic Procedures for Cast Irons - Vacaero

Jun 10, 2015· Pearlitic ductile iron can be heat treated to form martensite, as shown in Figure 15. Manufacture of ductile iron is challenging and at times the degree of nodularity can be lower than desired. Figure 16 shows an example of "exploded" graphite nodules, an undesirable condition.

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Classification and B!asic Metallurgy of Cast Irons

• High-alloy graphitic irons are used primarily for applications requiring corrosion resistance or a combination of strength and oxidation resistance. They are produced in both flake graphite (gray iron) or spheroidal graphite (ductile iron). Figure 2 classifies cast irons according to their com-mercial names, applications, and structures.

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A Possible Mechanism for the Formation of Exploded ...

Mechanism for the Formation of Exploded Graphite in Nodular Cast Irons. (2014) Materials Science Forum, 790-791. pp. 435-440. ISSN 0255-5476 Open Archive Toulouse Archive Ouverte (OATAO) OATAO is an open access repository that collects the work of Toulouse researchers and makes it freely available over the web where possible.

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SinterCast AB | Compacted Graphite Iron

Cast irons are differentiated by the shape of the graphite particles. Grey cast iron is characterized by randomly oriented graphite flakes, while the graphite in ductile iron exists as individual spheres. The graphite particles in CGI are randomly oriented and elongated as in grey iron, but they are shorter, thicker and have rounded edges.

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Structure of graphite precipitates in cast iron ...

Cast irons containing iron carbide (cementite) are named "white" whereas those in which carbon is present as graphite are called "grey" irons. In these latter, those having graphite precipitates with a flake-like morphology show a good damping capacity and compressive strength but also low tensile strength and ductility .

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EFFECT OF ELEMENTS IN GRAY - Lobenhofer

It is also said to cause "inverse chill." "Inverse chill" is a phenomenon where carbides form in the center of the section instead of the edge. High magnesium contents are also blamed for causing "exploded graphite." ("Exploded graphite" is a detrimental graphite form that weakens the strength of ductile …

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Ductile Iron - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

Ductile iron replaced cast iron pipe in pressure applications. The metallographic structure of ductile iron is such that the graphite exists in the form of nodules. These compact nodules do not interrupt the metallurgical matrix like the graphite flakes in cast iron. The result is a material that is stronger and tougher than cast iron.

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Graphite flotation in ductile iron castings: definition ...

Carbon float is defined as carbon segregation at the top surfaces of ductile iron castings caused by the buoyancy of graphite particles in liquid iron. Flotation of hypereutectic nodules occurs in ductile irons having carbon equivalents greater than 4.5 as defined by the expression CE = C% + (Si% / 3) + (P% / 3).

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Technical Introduction to the Use of Rare Earth Elements ...

Rare earths are associated with carbide promotion in thin section work, chunky and exploded graphite defects in nodular production. Rare earth additions should not be employed when producing high Nickel containing cast irons (Ni-Resist) due to risk of chunk graphite. The choice of …

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exploded graphite in ductile irons - tramwayfc.co.za

exploded graphite in ductile irons – Grinding Mill China. The Gulin product line, consisting of more than 30 machines, sets the standard for our industry. We plan to help you meet your needs with our equipment, with our distribution and product support system, and …

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Investigation of Cast Iron Processing to Produce ...

The shape of graphite in cast irons significantly affects mechanical and thermo-physical properties of castings. Table 1 provides the typical mechanical properties of cast irons with ferritic and pearlitic metal matrix.1, 2 Changing from the flake-shaped graphite in gray iron (GI) to spheroidal graphite (SG) in ductile iron (DI) increases

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